Thursday, March 29, 2012

Richat Structure in Mauritania in Yahoo News

 Is This An Ancient Spring from the Vast Watery Deep ?

A few days back there was an article in Yahoo News and the  Huffington Post: Richat Structure: Mysterious Geologic Formation Seen From Space Station (PHOTO)    which carried articles on the sensational pictures brought to us by the International Space Station.  This picture of a very well known Earth Geological Feature is called the Richat Structure of Mauritania in the western African desert of the Sahara. So I had to report on this as it is still fresh on all the minds of folks around the world. I was going to create an article sometime down the road as this specific feature, it's structure and layout are not the only anomaly to be found around the globe. There are many such features which in reality could be clues to Earth's ancient hydrological past which only exists today in mere blips on the radar on the global map. Never the less, those blips are important clues in understanding how the past completely vegetated Earth once operated.

This geologic feature has been photographed over and over by Astronauts. It is well known to scientists and other researchers, has been studied and conjectured upon, but to many it still remains a mystery.  In the past of course it was thought to be the work of a catastrophic meteor event, but that has long since been ruled out. One of the reasons is it's structure which lacks the characteristic blown wide open meteor crater impact as can be seen in at the Arizona impact crater which reveals the characteristic bowl shape punched into the earth with the uplifted sides circulating around it's rim.

So what is the Richat Structure and from where did it come from and how was it formed. Once a meteor impact was ruled out, it was noted that the area contains a lot of sedimentary layers which bring to mind actions created by hydrolgogical water source. Well, back in September of 2008, there was an article on this structure in an online journal called the "Geology News Blog" with the title of the article authored by Dave Schumaker being listed as
Richat Structure in Mauritania

There have been many such articles, but the mystery remains as to it's origins. It's location in the Sahara is puzzling because this is one of the hottest driest place on Earth. However, scientists and other researchers say that at one time the entire north Africa was once a Sub-Tropical Savanna Paradise inhabited by a large biodiversity of plants, animals, birds, fish, reptiles, etc. Before I conclude with a gallery of pictures (which are really kool by the way) , I want to pay close attention to those structure ripple formations that grow bigger from the center of that 50 kilometer wide diameter circle and I want to show you some come similar hydrothermal structures that likewise have the exact same features. Take a look at these pictures of hydrothermal mud springs. I have personally seen these types of structures in real life down by the 

Salton Sea in Imperial Valley California


So you get the idea. Now that last image comes from this website that has a gallery of photos taken of a mud volcanic field in the country of Romania.
Berca Mud Volcanoes – Volcano Craters – Buzau, Romania
Now that you understand the geological and hydrological forces which are responsible for similar patterns and structures, consider what would make such a 50 km diameter circular pattern in this remote area of Africa ? They admit in some studies that it was a hydrological feature and the resulting razed sedimentary feature there is a sort of hydrological plug of sorts, as even referenced by some of the readers who commented on the articles. Could there really have been an horizontal subterranean network of hydrological conduits in the Earth at one time with their various water sources connected by vertical sources driven up from the mantle, though not necessarily as hot as we understand them to be now ? Could this explain the hydrothermal heating that would have existed earth wide and allowed for a completely vegetated Earth from pole to pole which today are completely frozen ? Personally I cannot dogmatically insist that things were one way or another. Quite simply I was there, but the clues keep coming back and more and more questions arise. Consider the comment of one response to the story in "The Geology News Blog"
Kim: 'It’s not just a circular anticline – it’s a dome above a Cretaceous pluton. (The article describes the intrusion as a  "plug", but I wonder if we’re not looking at the top of a laccolith – like the Henry Mountains in Utah, but not eroded through to the pluton itself.)'
Take note of the interesting reference to springs being stopped up at Genesis 8:2 in the New World Translation:
Genesis 8:2 (NW)
2 "And the springs of the watery deep and the floodgates of the heavens became stopped up, and so the downpour from the heavens was restrained." 
 Interestingly, here is how the International Children's Bible expresses the same event in much simpler language:
"The underground springs stopped flowing. And the clouds in the sky stopped pouring down rain."

Interesting question with reference to Richat Structure being some type of anomalous plug which prevented further fluid rising to the surface of the earth. The author refers to the structure as a sort of plug feature much like we see in those mud volcano pics. But this was 50 km wide in diameter. Could it really be so and what would have caused this plugging and of what ? She also references similar structures in the state of Utah, which by the way I have also noted and was going to post at a future date. There are areas in Utah which show circular geological patterns associated with some type of volcanism or hydrothermal activity. Some scientists in studying Yellowstone and it's volcanic hydrothermal features have suggested that at one time the mantle plume or hot spot was further west that it is today. Well certainly Utah and other states west of Wyoming do have extinct features of once existing volcanic activity. So who knows, but still ore questions linger. Like those Laccolithic features in Utah that she referenced. NASA has a site of many of these features and many of the photos from space actually show similar structures on a smaller scale to the one in Mauritania. I'll reference it at a later time. Let's refresh your memories of this blog influence and motivation. 

Image: BBC News - by Brian Bowdler
The above image is of an artist's impression of multiple eruptions as a "super volcano" explodes. The new research suggests Scientists may be able to predict such events decades earlier. Take note of an ancient supervolcano structure on Galapagos islands

Image: BBC News - by Brian Bowdler
Most of the world's supervolcano structures and what is left of them are actually in zones where there were mantle hotspots and after the intense eruption period was over, with most of the molten contents expelled and subduction of what was left back into the mantle, then the great hollow cavern which was left behind collapsed in on itself and creates a large than normal anomaly called a caldera. Often a smaller, but large volcano will reappear as lava dome which may slowly rebuild over time creating a new mountain peak within the collapsed cadrea zone. Yellow Stone is a poster child example of a super volcano.

The Yellowstone Super Volcano: "Ancient Eruptions Larger Than Previously Thought"

Okay, once again, who really knows for sure. Yet could this be a clue to that particular ending of the extinction event ? Again i wasn't there, but I'm throwing the question out there for the viewing public. Clear the researchers understand this to be some type of hydrologically created feature, but as they say, it's origin is still a mystery. Let's look at something else in the way of a Satellite picture. This comes from a NASA photo for which the coloration may illustrate what such a hydrological feature could have created at one time in such an inhospitable environment we know today as the great 'Sahara'. Have a long look here at the photo from the government's NASA site.

 Quote from site itself - 
 Explanation: " What on Earth is that? The Richat Structure in the Sahara Desert of Mauritania is easily visible from space because it is nearly 50 kilometers across. Once thought to be an impact crater, the Richat Structure's flat middle and lack of shock-altered rock indicates otherwise. The possibility that the Richat Structure was formed by a volcanic eruption also seems improbable because of the lack of a dome of igneous or volcanic rock. Rather, the layered sedimentary rock of the Richat structure is now thought by many to have been caused by uplifted rock sculpted by erosion. The above image was captured last year by the orbiting Landsat 7 satellite. Why the Richat Structure is nearly circular remains a mystery. "
Here is yet another sort of 3D image of that Richat Structure which seems to bare out some sort of hydrological mechanism.

Ultimately it still considered a mystery. Now let's put your thinking and intelligent meditation caps on for a moment and visualize in your mind's eye, if it is possible that such hydrological portals really once existed, Water moving upwards in these conduits from the Earth's deep interior from which "primary water" which some researchers say the deep earth creates even today by the combining of hydrogen and oxygen molecules which are locked in minerals and also which facilitate liquid molten movements deep below as part of the natural energy machine that eventually forms into pristine clean proton water which itself moves towards the surface to hydrate the upper layers of Earth's crust. 

Did you notice in the photograph the surrounding rims of the circle containing greener vegetation-like colouring which makes one think if a large body of water like a lake fed by underground springs and branch out from there to form various rivers in a intricate hydrological web and network on the surface of river systems which move out and eventually meander and wind their way back to the seas ? Of course it should be noted once again that in this geographical area of the Sahara, there is truthfully no green vegetation as it is a hostile desert region, but merely a photographic anomaly. Still it illustrates the potential possibilities of the past. But there are other geographical giants found in the natural world and scientists call them supervolcanoes. They of course are more volcanic in nature as opposed the hydrothermal nature of the giant deep Earth hydrological Richat portal or any other smaller mud volcanoes. Yet some present day former Supervolcanoes do contain water for which they feed rivers which flow out of them.

  Is Lake Tahoe - SuperVolcano ?
Lake Tahoe News

Creator Lake - Oregon ?

 Lake Toba, Indonesia ?

Link to more information on the World's Supervolcanoes
BBC - Science & Nature - "Supervolcano The world's Biggest Bang"

To be honest, this Biblical scriptural reference has always in the past been a major puzzle to me. The description of course is very vague as it was meant to be. That still doesn't mean we humans are not courious and demand more detailed answers. Perhaps in the light of many modern day findings, this has more meaning now:

 Genesis 2:10-14 (NW)

10 "Now there was a river issuing out of E′den to water the garden, and from there it began to be parted and it became, as it were, four heads. 11 The first one’s name is Pi′shon; it is the one encircling the entire land of Hav′i·lah, where there is gold. 12 And the gold of that land is good. There also are the bdellium gum and the onyx stone. 13 And the name of the second river is Gi′hon; it is the one encircling the entire land of Cush. 14 And the name of the third river is Hid′de·kel; it is the one going to the east of As·syr′i·a. And the fourth river is the Eu·phra′tes."

In no way am I saying that this location is the exact spot of biblical Eden, not a chance. No Way, but what is interesting though are the descriptive physical geological descriptions in those verses and their effect on the surrounding environment. In such a minerotrophic system the description offers a system that was always available and dependable. Ancient fossil tree rings (not all, but many) seem to bare this out that the seasons were of a time when there was a great deal of vast healthy vegetation. Many of the larger animal which no longer exist today, but are only found in the fossil records would have had larger appetites for which such a hydrological cycling system would have facilitated. Again, no dogmatic for sure this is the way it was, but simply putting out there the questions that allow for other possibilities to explain such mysteries. In the mean time now, here is a further googled page of images about this posts subject matter and I'm sure you'll find them really kool.;_ylt=AiySk8ZwwlpvyhHOVsdfR3SbvZx4?fr=yfp-t-701-s&toggle=1&cop=mss&ei=UTF-8&p=richat%20structure%20in%20mauritania 

   Further Notes will be added as time & Info are available!








Wednesday, March 28, 2012

What is this thing called "Primary Water" ?

Keeping along this same theme with deep water cycle of the Earth's, we have a terminology called  'Primary Water' , there are a number of references  to the deep inner workings of the physical geology of the Earth mentioned in the Bible which are cross references to what has already been quoted.Take the Biblical book of Job.  The chapters in Job 38 thru 41 reveal how it is almost impossible for humans to really discover just how the origins of things in the natural world all came about. Yet it allows Humans to try to wonder, research and discover as this is an important part of our nature. As time pants on Scientists and other researchers have discovered clues as to possible mechanisms of the machinery which make up the Earth. 

Let's take one interesting clue in Job 38:16 ( NW Translation )

16  "Have you come to the sources of the sea, Or in search of the watery deep have you walked about?"

Other translations read this way:

Job 38:16 ( Amplified Bible )

16  "Have you explored the springs of the sea? Or have you walked in the recesses of the deep?"

Job 38:16 ( Common English Version )

16 "Have you gone to the sea’s sources, or walked in the chamber of the deep?"

Job 38:16 ( God's Word Translation )

16 "Have you gone to the springs in the sea, or walked through the valleys of the ocean depths?"

Okay, take a trip over to the website and you can make further literary comparisions. But we get the idea. The entire chapter brings up natural world scientific phenomena and established workings of the natural world and Job is asked the question by Almighty God if he can explain these origins and their functions to God by way of reply. Of course the answer is no. However, as far as today, are there any furture findings or revelations that would satisfy modern man's thirst for knowledge with practical applications as it's goal ? Indeed there has been, but just how much of it illustrates what was meant even by this above quoted scripture is really up for discussion still. But let's see what human's have thus far found out about the ocean floors and the sources for all water.

Science has shown us pictures and animated illustrations to help us understand that they have indeed discovered and revealed that there are certainly 10s of thousands of hydrothermal springs venting further down from the depths of the Earth's crust from somewhere. Clearly water is somehow recycled and renewed though we may not totally understand the why and the how. This modern day knowledge and discovery  is clearly something that even the simple man Job would have been incapable of fathoming, let alone given the almighty an answer. Hence he kept his mouth shut. This also brings up more questions of does the inner Earth contain more than 5 times the volume of water than all of that on the surface as recent scientific discoveries have reveal ? How does water not boil and explode like a stove top pressure cooker ? What experiments have been done to verify any of this?

I gave reference to this paper earlier of a Research team at the University of Bonn , Germany about the inner Earth's amazing ability to unlock trapped hydrogen and oxygen molecules and form them into water which is then pushed up through the Earth's crust to the surface. So here it is again with the subject of 'Primary Water' by a research drilling firm that drills deep in the Earth looking for what is otherwise known as "Fossil Water" 

 Life-giving rocks from a depth of 250 km - Minerals act as oxygen reservoirs, stopping the earth from becoming a barren planet 

Another drilling company and individual interested in the search for this type of deep interior water is Bill Cox and his website about his company based in Lake Elsinore, California. The site itself is called

Another controversial subject terminology that not all scientists/Geologists agree on are the topic of what are called a 'Mantle Plume', which is said to be an upwards towards the crust plaume of hotter than surrounding mantle material around it. Areas on this planet Earth that are said to be directly under 'Mantle Plumes' places like Iceland, Hawaii and Yellowstone for example.

Very few volcanic vents are believed or said to be directly tapped into the mantle through a direct conuit. Most openings from the mantle to surface are zig-zagged and have several horis´zonal layers and pockets as opposed to the idea of a direct striaght verticle conduit chamber. This would even make sense if the Earth at one time had a general network of geothermal hydrological plumbing honeycombed throughout the Earth's Crustal interior. Take a look at the plumb animation. 

Take a look at the lower animation. This simply shows a piece of the very extensive system of teconic plate system to be found on the ocean floors around the globe. This particular one is known as the Mid-Alantic Ridge. In areas like this it is common to have thousands of those underwater hydrothermal vents spewing millions of gallons of super heated mineral enriched water coming from deep in the Earth. Of course we've all seen pictures and animations of these springs.

What would have happened in an ancient hydrological cycle if such tectonic plates were somehow split open like a zipper and their more than quadruple amounts of vast waters were released all at once from "  . . . springs of the vast watery deep" ? From the standpoint of an enormous infusion of waters into the oceans and seas everywhere on the planet, then surely giant Mega-Tsunamis would have overwhelmed entire continents scouring of the surface instantly without warning all life and burrying it in an instant only to be subducted itself, uplifted later in any amount of twisted torn material compressed into various fossil rock materials we have across the globe. Again, I can't dogmatically say for sure on anything here, as it also is mere specualtions, but it is something to ponder. 

Still, more and more research is going into the appearance and manufacture of  what has been termed 'Primary Water' by many of Earth's researchers and explorers. There is also a modern day physical phenomena which would illustrates the entire springs network being broken open at once. It's illustrated by the El Hierro volcano of the Canary Islands chain in the Atlantic as seen here in this underwarer volcanic springs coming to the surface.

Take a close look at this kool video:

Now imagine all of the springs broken open along all the tectonic plates and I mean no matter how you want to debate the Asteroid, Comet, Meteor or Almighty God theory of how it was triggered. It explains much easier how and where those Tsunamis came from and how we arrived at many of the fossil finds we have today, even the numerous mummified Mammoths which were found, autopsied only to find what kind them was silt in the lungs which reveal sudden drowning. Take a further look at the instant deaths of many of the complete skeletons of dinosaurs and what they reveal. Of course this will always remain controversial as differet ideologies, philosophies and political worldviews continue to divide, Still these findings are interesting to ponder.

Watery Secret of the Dinosaur Death Pose

Saturday, March 24, 2012

Earth's Ancient Poles: Winter Sunlight ?

Well the top picture is known today by popular terminology as the winter phenomena of 'Arctic Blue Light' and yet in the description given to us by many notable researchers who, when describing to us the ancient Arctic landscape as a pristine forested landscape that never even brushed with a weather pattern of frost let alone wintry snow, such a 'Arctic Blue Light' phenomena would have been impossible. And of course there is the other picture of yet another one of those interesting, but common phenomena called 'Northern Lights' ( Aurora Borealis ) which automatically comes to mind when we think if this region of the earth. The ancient weather patterns debate of what that ancient world once looked like and how it worked goes on. In fact, Scott Wing, a paleontologist at the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C.actually disagreed with some of Jahren's take on weather pattern interpretations regarding the almost absent Oxygen-18 isotope and what it means. Here's what he said:
"Water from snowfall also contains low quantities of oxygen 18, thus matching the water profile from the wood," he said. He suggested the possibility that snow, formed over the then ice-free Arctic Ocean, may have supplied the island with water. This would indicate that the northern regions were actually much colder than Jahren suggests.
"Isotope levels are very difficult to interpret, and there are lots of questions remaining," Wing said.

Yet what was overlooked and I failed to mention it previously and also a very important detail Hope Jahren pointed out was the other anomaly of no discoloration of the tree rings caused by late summer slowing of growth down to the early frost damage to cells, etc. The rings were crisp, clear and well defined, unlike modern day tree growth rings as seen here in this example.

Oak • 1772-1871 • University of Missouri • Chronology constructions
There may well have been a more interesting role in epigenetics to be triggered by time of year and sunlight, as opposed to gradual change in season's temperature. Gorwth rings above have very easily distinguishable dark rings separating each years growth pattern. This was absent in Arctic tree wood. Here is an interesting video on Tree Ring research being done today. It's only about five minutes in length.

What do the ancient Arctic Trees tell us about the ancient climate which no longer exists ?

image: WebEcoist

It should also be noted that she is not the only one to notice this anomaly in tree growth rings of ancient mummified or mineralized fossil wood. This same anomaly has been suggested by other researchers doing interpretations of discoveries in the Antarctic Polar Regions far to the south. Back in 2004 on Discovery News, there was an article on the finds of an ancient forests and what the rings revealed. Take note that Paleobotanist, David Cantrill, makes an interesting statement about it being as if someone turned a growth switch to 'Off' abruptly. There was not gradual slowing down of groth. This would lead me to believe that there was an epigenetic factor in play which was triggered by the environmental cue of light itself for that time of year.
Antarctic Forests Reveal Ancient Trees

Credit: Joel Barker, Byrd Polar Research Center, Ohio State University

Botanical Gardens UBC

There was an important question about how plant vegetation could survive in long months of darkness that was brought up in that National Geographic Magazine interview Hope Jahren who had this further to say:
"These forests had four months of daylight and four months of complete darkness. Finding trees that could survive under these conditions is as flabbergasting as finding humans that live underwater, said Jahren.

That is interesting. If it never went below 14 Celsius and not even a frost disrupted the climatic conditions, how did the animals like the beaver, crocodile and turtle fossils found in that buried beaver dam survive if not hibernating ? Was it really totally dark ? Once again I believe they are making the mistake of trying to compare that ancient world with some interesting anomalies today's natural world and incorrect assumptions can be made. Clearly the mechanisms that made up that atmosphere was NOT as we know it today. Otherwise we'd still have forests and abundant biodiverse wildlife there. 

What if the upper atmosphere (maybe even above the stratusphere contained enough gaseous water and other vapors to reflect the sun's brilliance at such a high altitude that the effect on the surface of the arctic was not dark at all, but a type of Sunset Afterglow ? I'm not trying to be dogmatic here and insist this is the way it was. I'm throwing out ideas out there to get people to think and meditate on this. There are indeed today small patterns of phenomena that happen on Earth and the atmosphere that illustrate my point. For example, I lived for 25 years up in the San Jacinto Mtns above Palm Springs CA. Every year we received a weather pattern in summertime called Monsoonal Moisture which came up from Mexico. At the very end of the day and after those giant massive Thunderheads did their rain downpour earlier, there was always that high atmospheric residue pumped up into the high layers of the sky, maybe 40,000 feet or more. If the areas monsoonal moisture content was enough and the cloud or storm coverage and event was very strong that day, then the entire sky would contain complete coverage of this extremely high thin cloud layer.

 Sometimes under just the right conditions and long after the sun went down over the Pacific Ocean's horizon, the sun's light would reflect back on these extremely high upper atmospheric cloud layers and would act as a mirror type effect of pointing light back to the earth in this area and lighting everything up for about 15 or 20 minutes brighter than it was on that day. Let me show you a picture of what I mean. Keep in mind there are hundreds of images you can Google on Sunset Afterglow , but you get the idea. Here's a website that beautifully and scientifically explains what I'm talking about. Notice all the pics on this website and especially the illustrated animated graph which speaks a thousand words. First a link to that website and then a picture of the graph for all to see.

Isn't that a kool explanation and illustration ? You can click on the image or look at the bigger image on the website. Basically they explain reflective 'Blue Light' over the Rocky Mountains and 'Orange Light' reflecting over the Appalachian Mountains. This mirror effect anomaly only lasts for a small while given this areas position closer to the equator, but in the ancient Arctic, if there were a permanently stationary atmospheric anomaly over the the North Pole, maybe even the South Pole, perhaps this reflection was continuous over those winter months, as opposed to today's darkness we all know today ? Again, I'm not dogmatically saying this is what or how it all happened, but I'm simply throwing out ideas out there to get folks to think. So does the Biblical account in Genesis say anything about the chances of this anomaly ? Well, yes and no. It gives a vague reference in the first chapter about when the unique atmosphere was created. This was during the second creative period. Here's exactly how it's worded.
Genesis 1:6-8 (NW)
6 And God went on to say: “Let an expanse come to be in between the waters and let a dividing occur between the waters and the waters.” 7 Then God proceeded to make the expanse and to make a division between the waters that should be beneath the expanse and the waters that should be above the expanse. And it came to be so. 8 And God began to call the expanse Heaven. And there came to be evening and there came to be morning, a second day." 

So apparently the original planet first described as being waste and formless and mostly composed of water, now is described as having a separation of these waters. The lower waters being the surface of the earth itself and the upper waters are high up circling the earth and the space in between is called the 'heavens' or atmosphere. What this gaseous layer above the atmosphere was composed of besides water molecules, like methane, nitrogen, whatever is anyone's assumption, assertion or speculation. Nothing in detail is known or explained and it's not necessary since that was not the purpose of it being written to satisfy the questions of future speculating intellectual mankind.

There is more proof however to this mirroring effect in the upper atmosphere from one stationary point on Earth to another is actually not only possible, but a reality and that is the United States Air force's military research technology known as HAARP whose facility is based in Northern Alaska has been doing. And there is so much controversy and speculation by today's armchair scientific pundits about what it all means. Here's the link to the Air Force website and it is loaded with multiple illustrations that allow you to actually visualize and see for yourself just how this reflective mirroring effect can and does work.

Weather as a Force Multiplier: Owning the Weather in 2025 
You should also look up terms as Weather Modification & Ionispheric Reflection which technologies require creating a gaseous layer in the Ionosphere perhaps of aluminum particles or other gases through aerial spraying or other type of medium and transmitting and reflecting some type of energy off that Ionospheric placement in the atmosphere and directing it with precision to any point on Earth to control or modify the weather. I don't really want to get into much discussion with this, but you've got Google and you'll see my point. Let's keep it on topic of what could have taken place in an ancient natural world. Again the illustrations below to close this out for now. But in the end, I still don't really know, but I'm just expressing some thoughts on possible explanations of how both of Earth's Poles in ancient times may have had the ability of reflecting more light on a challenging geographical location than it does at present.
Here is an interesting link describing the reflective processes of physics on atmospheric anomalies. Both images above and below are found there.

Wednesday, March 21, 2012

Could Geothermal Minerotrophic Cycling Explain an Ancient Climate ?

This is the way Axel Heiberg Island looks today. But thousands of years ago it was a very different story. It was once comprised of a lush vegetative ecosystem clothed with some of the greatest biodiversity known and recorded for us in the fossil record. So what happened ? Take a close look at some recent News Reports. 
Here's an article dated January 10, 2012 - National Post - Canada
Another article on January 11, 2012 - Nunatsiaq News Online - Canada
Volcanic mercury aided climate change in causing prehistoric extinction: Canadian scientist - 'Scientists probe ancient chemical deposits on shores of High Arctic lake' 

So there was a cataclysmic volcanism event which destroyed life on a completely vegetated Earth from pole to pole. Okay, so more eveidence comes to light that volcanism ('springs from the watery deep') ended all life as it was once known. But the question still begs, how exactly did the Earth keep it's temperature at such a mild perfect state for life to thrive ? This is the very question being asked by other researchers from other fields of study in an article on 
March 5, 2012 - Yahoo News

You may Google for yourself and find other journals carrying this same article. Apparently they feel that at one time our Solar System's Sun wasn't as strong and as powerful as it is today. So the article's question asks, how did the Earth not freeze over if the sun's energy and power were only at 70% of what it is today ?  First off they rule out some type of high concentration of global warming gases encircling the atmosphere. They say they know that liquid water and life were present 3.8 Billion years ago and that all of this happened somewhere between freezing point and boiling point. How they know that I don't know, but they say that's the way it was.  For greenhouse gases to explain the faint young sun paradox, their concentrations would need to have been extremely high, hundreds to thousands of times as much as today.
Quote: -
"If levels of carbon dioxide were that high, they would be recorded in ancient soils and sediments in the rock record," Pope said. "If levels of methane were that high, they would actually form a kind of organic haze in the atmosphere that blocks the sun's rays and would counteract its properties as a greenhouse gas."
'Now scientists analyzing relatively pristine 3.8-billion-year-old rocks from Isua find no evidence that greenhouse gas levels were high enough to explain the faint young sun paradox, further deepening the mystery, Pope told LiveScience.'
Quote: - 
"The rocks suggest that the oceans were up to 26 percent larger in the past."
No kidding. So there was much more volume of water on the Earth's surface and in the atmosphere. But of  course. Water has more heat holding capacity.

But the article really offers no other alternative other than it must have something to do with early oceans and water in the upper atmosphere. Okay, that does sorta work for me. Yet on many of the online News sites carrying this article, there were many readers who did have the right suggestion that was never once considered by the researchers. Many suggested, 'why don't they consider more global Geothermal activity for warming the surface of the Earth ?' and that my friends is a "Bingo" as they say. I have argued this for the past couple of decades in times past and the usual intellectuals driven by the usual mandated scientific dogma would shout it down.

But let's consider. How would such Geothermal activity contribute to a warm yet comfortably mild climate on the planet ? Easy illustration. Let's illustrate it this way. Imagine the inside of your house as the Earth. The floor is the ground and the walls and roof are the uniquely constructed Atmospheric Ozone layer which is well constructed with just the right materials for preventing heating loss in winter and preventing overheated temperatures in the summer. The under floor copper tubing (or other conduit) with warm water running through it represents an elaborate geothermal conduit network inside the Earth. If you've ever experienced an under floor heating set up then you know it is the most superior of all the heating technologies. Even in the Antarctic/Arctic polar regions just such a well built house would be no problem for heating. Another important componant for this house is a humidifier. Add just the correct amount of humidity and you have the perfect comfortable environment. This was attested to by those arctic researchers on Axel Heiberg Island who comfirmed this humidity requirement through Oxygen Isotope studies on real mummified fossil wood. Unfortunately none of the researchers consider this option.

Image animation by Auriel Laki

Detailed Animation of a Isometric Geothermal
Heat Pump Under Floor Heating

Then further questions just keep coming up more and more. What are the mechanics of just how such a system worked and how can we learn from this ? What practical applications for newer greener eco trchnological innovation can we obtain by looking down this possible explanations road ? Yes indeed.

Recently we have had many severe Earthquakes and they are on the rise. Much of this has to do with deforestation which I'll give more details about the reasons for this later. Many of these Earthquakes have been around the 9.0 mark on the Richter Scale. Interestingly, it should be noted after the Indonesian Sunami event, the Chile and Japanese earthquakes, scientists came out publically and published to the world that these events were powerful enough to have changed Earth's timing. They insisted this happened and offered their calculations as proof.  Not only kool, but also interesting! 

Well, if a massive global extinction event occured way back whenever, would not such an entirely complete catastrophic global world shaking event have been powerful enough to change Earth's timing radically on it's axis ? Clearly the tilt of Earth's Axis was different way back then than we have it today. The settings apparently are so finely tuned that a few degrees shift one way or another could have big impacts on just how the weather/climate machinery actually runs. Okay, again I'm not an expert, but I'm not a dummy either. Let's offer another illustration that many here reading may again be able to relate to. Take a look at this automobile's distributor. 

Image - Desai Auto

I know a great many looking at this will know what it is and what it's important primary function is to the smooth running of an automobile. It allows your finely tuned car to run and purr like a kitten if it is set properly. It's basic rotational function is to perfectly time all the electrical spark to be in tune & timing of the sparkplugs and fuel/air mixtureintake to fire precisely on time to allow your Automobile's engine to run as effeciently and perfectly as possible and deliver that economical and comfortable drive. I use to have an old 1966 Dodge Bell Telephone Van - dull olive green. I know many know what I'm refering to. It had a dodge Slant 6 engine. Extremely easy to work on. My Van had an over heating problem when I first purchased it from a friend. The problem was the timing setting of the distributor. Most mechanics will know that if the timing is a little retarded, the vehicle will run rough and shake violently if retarde too far if it runs at all. If the timing is advanced any the opposite direction, it will seem to run okay, but with far little power than if it was set just right and runs warmer than normal and will even overheat when driving up hills or grades.

Somehow the Earth's timing on it's Axis must have been radically disrupted which changed the entire global climatic mechanism situation almost the instant that catastrophic event (however one chooses to argue it) happened. Nothing was the same after that event. Clearly such a global volcanism event originated from deep within the Earth would have radically disrupted the plumbing of the Earth from it's interior plumbing deep inside the mantle to the very surface of the earth. All venting systems and volcanic conduits would have been destroyed.  There is no question that whatever well finely tuned mechanism that allowed the climate to be completely mild thoroughly around the globe which allowed for the greatest biodiversity ever known was forever changed at that point of extinction event. Now one wonders, can we by our own ability and proper knowledge of the way things really work ever bring the Earth back to that original Paradiaics state again ? 

That's a very good question. Yet the answers to that and other questions have nothing to do with better eco inventions and innovative green concepts. People need to change for the better first in order to save what's left of earth. Otherwise you are only wanting a fix it pill approach. 
Continued on next future post.

"The Water's Signature is Found in the Wood"

For some time Scientists and other researchers have known that the Arctic regions of Canada's Archipelago and Greenland were at one time lush green forested environments. There are two areas of concentrated study, one being Ellesmere Island and the other Axel Heiberg Island

Take a close look at some of the amazing Dawn Redwood fossils mummified wood that has been found on this archeological dig site called the Buchannon Lake Formation.

Metasequoia Stumped Field

Well the picture is worth a thousand words. Getting back to the National Geographic 2002 interview of Paleo-geobologist Hope Jahren who you see here on the right, in the online article found here:

Arctic Redwood Fossils Are Clues to Ancient Climates 

There are several relevant quotes I should point out that are related to this blog's purpose here.
Article's Quote:

 "Axel Heiberg Island, at 82 degrees north and just a stone's throw from the North Pole, was once a great vacation spot—during the Eocene epoch, about 45 million years ago. Lush redwood forests, ferns, flowering plants, and a huge variety of animals, now extinct, once thrived here." 
"Hope Jahren, a geobiologist at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland, is using wood fossils from Axel Heiberg to discover prehistoric weather patterns that enabled this now bleak, cold, and dry desert to support such a rich array of life."

"I've always been enraptured with the idea that the Earth can change so dramatically," said Jahren "The Earth today is very different compared to how it was millions of years ago."
During the Eocene epoch, Axel Heiberg and much of northern Siberia and Alaska were covered in temperate forests with redwood-like trees called Metasequoias, similar to those now seen in Northern California.
The trees were between 30 and 40 meters tall (98 and 131 feet) and densely packed, providing a canopy for a plethora of ferns and flowers, said Jahren. The largest tree found had a diameter of three meters (ten feet). What remains of these ancient redwoods today is "rather extraordinary," said Jahren.
"These trees look like driftwood on the beach—they are dry and flaky, with almost no other alterations," said Jahren. Unlike these trees, ancient forests often become petrified through the steady infiltration of minerals over many years, which eventually replaces the wood tissue with stone."
Chemical Signature (Now here's where you need to pay really close attention)

"Because the wood is unadulterated, the tissues hold a chemical record of weather patterns during the period the tree lived. Jahren studies carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen because these elements are taken from the soil, water, and air and incorporated into the tissue of plants and animals." 
"Jahren and her colleague Leonel Silveira Lobo Sternberg of the University of Miami in Coral Gables, Florida, are examining chemically different forms, or isotopes, of oxygen in these ancient redwoods to reveal weather patterns during the Eocene period.
Oxygen that a plant uses, said Jahren, comes primarily from water. Determining the chemistry of that water could reveal exactly where it came from. Rain that arrives after traveling long distances over land has a very different chemical signature than rain that travels over the ocean or just very short distances, she explained."
"The researchers' analysis of the oxygen content of the wood revealed "a bizarre absence of oxygen-18, the heavy isotope," said Jahren. Water contains both oxygen 16—the more common and lighter isotope—and the more rare oxygen 18. The analysis suggests that the water contained almost exclusively oxygen 16."

"The study appeared a recent issue of GSA Today, a publication of the Geological Society of America. One way to get water with these characteristics, said Jahren, is for that water to have traveled large distances over land. As water travels over land, she explained, the heavier oxygen is removed as it rains."
"The only route allowing moisture laden air to travel thousands of kilometers over land before reaching Axel Heiberg would be across North America, possibly from the Gulf of Mexico, said Jahren. "This idea is compelling because it would supply water rich in oxygen 16 and supply warm air to this very northern region"—warm enough to nurture a forest."
Different Weather Patterns (Pay Further Attention to some hidden details here)

 Jahren finds this model of water transport intriguing "because this weather pattern is radically different from today." Current weather systems over North America tend to travel from west to east. In the Eocene epoch, a much warmer period when the poles were free of ice, weather systems could shift from south to north, said Jahren."

"But there is another possible interpretation of Jahren's findings, cautioned Scott Wing, a paleontologist at the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C."
"Water from snowfall also contains low quantities of oxygen 18, thus matching the water profile from the wood," he said. He suggested the possibility that snow, formed over the then ice-free Arctic Ocean, may have supplied the island with water. This would indicate that the northern regions were actually much colder than Jahren suggests.
"Isotope levels are very difficult to interpret, and there are lots of questions remaining," Wing said.
If Axel Heiberg were actually colder, it would imply that animals such as alligators, which were known to live at these latitudes, as well as plants must have been tolerant of the cold. 
Whether Axel Heiberg actually received waters originating from equatorial regions is "still up for debate," said Wing.
But there are other questions left to answer. "These forests had four months of daylight and four months of complete darkness. Finding trees that could survive under these conditions is as flabbergasting as finding humans that live underwater," said Jahren.
Uncovering ancient weather patterns provides greater understanding of how ecosystems work, opening a window into the Earth's capabilities. It also offers new ideas about the kind of conditions that plants and animals might be able to survive in.
16O and 18O values - What are the implications of a plant's wood tissue being exclusively 16O ? 
So what does all of this isotope research really tell us ?  Working with wood probably seems like an odd choice if you want to study climate data, even if you're trying to determine a climate of countless centuries ago, but the oxygen ratios of all these parts are inter-linked. The water molecules in any given leaf or wood sample of modern day plants and trees as we know them contain a mixture of the two oxygen isotopes.  Now remember this quote from Hope Jahren in the interview:
 "Oxygen that a plant uses, said Jahren, comes primarily from water. Determining the chemistry of that water could reveal exactly where it came from. Rain that arrives after traveling long distances over land has a very different chemical signature than rain that travels over the ocean or just very short distances"
So water influenced by the Earth or the land has a different chemical signature than water which originates as evaporation into Storm Cloud formations originating over the Earth's Oceans. Though the hypothesis or educated interpretation which is influenced heavily by the mandated conventional thinking which would rule out any minerotrophic hydrological cycling, the solution for them is to rationalize and reason that somehow tropical monsoonal moisture from the Gulf of Mexico (that's if even the same geological layout still existed then as it does now) must have somehow mysteriously moved north by forces we have no idea of identifying. As admitted, they acknowledge that Earth's 'Coriolis Effect' still would have existed as it does today. The problem here is that the wind air movements governed by the Jet Stream would still have prevented any  strong northern flow of tropic moisture. The hang up here I think is still trying to rationalize things as we know them to be today, but we forget that the mechanisms today could NOT have existed then or otherwise we'd still have mild forested polar regions both north and south. The one important bottomline here is that rainstorm mechanisms which form over oceans and move over continents and falling as rain to hydrate all life DID NOT happen in these polar regions or there would be a chemical record of it and that simply DOES NOT exist.

Hope Jahren references the work of her colleague Professor Leonel Silveira Lobo Sternberg from Florida who studied a fascinating phenomena of something called hydraulic lift and redistribution down in the Amazon River Basin Drainage Areas, where specific deep rooted trees pull up massive amounts of moisture during the dry season, transport the water to the surface to share with other neighbouring plants and the resultant evaporation and humidity creates cloud formations which once again in turn fall as rain in the form of electrically charged Tropical Thunderstorms. And all with no influence from the Ocean's water cycling mechanisms.  At this point I have to relate my personal experience with the high water quality of electrically charged thunderstorms. In the area where I lived in Anza , California, we had summer monsoonal moisture which moved up north from Mexico which developed thunderheads in the hot summer afternoons which released electrically charged rain during the two summer months of July/August. Chemical signature of that specific water from that source causes an EXPLOSION of vegetative growth in every and all plants. It's a phenomena not found in the chemical and structural signature of water molecules from winter rains. It has other effects for example on truffle formation, but that is for a later post on the "Earth Internet" BLOG. So basically I can understand their rationalizing the lack of Oxygen-18 in the wood samples to a monsoonal type of moisture. I probably would also if I wasn't aware of a few other details and possibilities.

Another conclusion to the Atmospheric conditions they arrived at was the from the mummified tree rings, there was no evidence of snowfall in winter or even a mere frost. From the isotope studies they determined that the temperature never went below 14 Celsius (57.2 Fahrenheit) and that humidity levels were far above that of present day Arctic. Again moisture retains heat better than dry land. One reading stated that if you took a low level of humidity of about 20% and a high level of tropical 98%, then the Arctic humidity was probably somewhere in the middle at 65-70%. The other anomaly was that in those rings, there was no late summer growth discoloration. This discoloration is common in wood today where late frosts trigger a slow down in growth reflected in some cell damage which slows the process to a halt. Back in the ancient Arctic, these trees growth rings acted as if someone through a light switch to "Off" and then turned it to "On" in the Spring again. It was that pronounced and abrupted. The same exactly findings have been written about in evidence from the Antarctice.

Still, why shouldn't the minerotrophic hydrological cycle ever be considered ? There are other reasons recently for considering such a cycle. I'll consider this from the link here on another page.